Spatial and seasonal variations in the physicochemical parameters of water quality of a tropical reservoir, Nigeria


  • Odewade, L. O. 1
  • Adeniyi, I. F. 2
  • Aduwo, A. I. 2
  • 1 Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
    2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria



reservoir, water quality, physico-chemical parameters, spatial variation, seasonal variations


In this study, the physicochemical properties of a water supply reservoir in the Esa-Odo community, Obokun Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria, were determined. Thirteen selected sampling stations over the three reaches of Esa-Odo reservoir along its main axis were monitored between February 2017 to December 2018 with a view to determining the seasonal and spatial variations in the general physicochemical water quality parameters of the reservoir water. From each sampling station, surface water samples were collected bi-monthly for two annual cycles (rainy and dry seasons). The collected water samples were treated and analyzed for physicochemical water quality parameters using standard instrumental and non-instrumental methods. The data obtained were analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the analyses of the reservoir water showed an increasing clarity from the upstream to the downstream stations with regard to water temperature, depth, transparency, turbidity, and colour. The water was generally near neutral (pH: 7.01 ± 0.04 - 7.07 ± 0.50) but slightly more near neutral in the rainy season than during the dry season. The water in the reservoir can be classified as a dilute salt bicarbonate freshwater with mean conductivity at the three reaches ranging from 113.39 ± 1.67 µScm-1 to 115.24 ± 2.46 µScm-1. Ca2+ and HCO3- were the dominant cation and anion, respectively, at all stations investigated irrespective of seasons of sampling. The mean values of most parameters determined were within permissible limits, making the river water suitable for most probable domestic and industrial uses and livestock support.